The Doctrine of the Kingdom of God

The New Testament, especially the Synoptic Gospels, is filled with references to the Kingdom of God (or Kingdom of Heaven). There are 75 references to the ‘Kingdom of God’ in the New Testament. There are also 34 references to the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’ which appears to be a synonymous title. And the word ‘kingdom’ is used a total of 155 times in the New Testament; with only a handful of them not referring to the Kingdom of God.

But what is this kingdom that is being proclaimed? Clearly it was a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. And one that his followers picked up on and also proclaimed. This article is an attempt to explore this kingdom that Jesus and his apostles proclaimed.

Estimated reading time: 13 minutes

The Background for the Kingdom of God

Before looking at the kingdom taught by Jesus and his apostles, it would be good to first examine what the expression would have meant to the people Jesus was teaching

The Old Testament and the Coming Kingdom

In 1 Kings 8:25 Solomon recounts the promise God made to David. A promise of a throne that would never end. And that he would always have a descendant sitting on that throne. This became a theme of the prophets, looking forward to a day when David’s kingdom would be reestablished, with David once more on the throne.

This was the hope of Israel when first John the Baptist and then Jesus appeared announcing the kingdom. The expectation was that the Messiah would come, free Israel from Roman occupation, and establish an independent Israel. An Israel that would be at the center of the world.

The Expectation of the Disciples

When Philip came to Nathanael to bring him to Jesus (John 1:45), he introduced him as the one that Moses and the prophets had written about. This reference to Moses was probably to Deuteronomy 18:15 where Moses said that God would raise up for them a prophet like Moses himself. The reference to the prophets could have been any of a number of passages looking forward to the Messiah. Philip’s intent here was to equate Jesus with the new Moses, David returning to claim his throne, their promised deliverer.

Later, in Mark 10:35-37, James and John requested to sit at Jesus right and left when he came into his kingdom. Clearly they were anticipating an earthly kingdom with Jesus on the throne. And they were vying for the places on honor on his right and left.

And in Acts 1:6, after Jesus’ resurrection, the disciples asked if he was now ready to restore the kingdom to Israel. Through the three plus years the disciples had followed Jesus they had never given up hope of an earthly kingdom. While their hopes had died at the cross, they were raised to new levels at his resurrection.

The disciples who followed Jesus during his earthly ministry were looking forward to the reestablishment of a Jewish kingdom; as were most of the Jews. It was not until the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost that their understanding changed. Teaching about the kingdom continued. But it no longer centered around a physical one with Jerusalem as its capital.

Teaching about the Kingdom of God

So what did Jesus and his apostles have to say about the Kingdom of God?

Near at Hand

When John the Baptist came, he proclaimed that the kingdom of God was near (Matt. 3:2). Jesus followed him, also proclaiming the nearness of the kingdom of God (Matt. 4:17). And when Jesus sent his disciples out, they were told to announce that the kingdom is near (Matt. 10:7). The word translated as ‘near’, engizō, refers to a coming close in a temporal sense. The kingdom was just around the corner. While it had not yet arrived, it was imminent.

This would have played into the expectations of both the disciples and the crowds that followed Jesus. And it likely had something to do with the antagonism of the religious leaders. If they felt that Jesus might ferment revolt against the Romans, it would increase their opposition.

Not Exclusively Jewish

The Kingdom that the Jews were looking forward to was one with them on the top of the heap; and with everyone else beneath them. They were God’s chosen people and the rest of the world were Gentiles, dogs. So some of Jesus’ teaching must have been unsettling to his listeners.

In Matthew 8:5-13 is the account of an encounter between Jesus and a Roman centurion with a sick servant. Jesus expressed amazement over the faith of the centurion. He then declared that many will come from the east and the west and sit at the feast. Meanwhile the subjects of the kingdom would be thrown out into darkness. The implication is clear that in the coming kingdom there will be many Gentiles; while many of the Jews will find themselves on the outside looking in.

While not as clear, Jesus’ parable of the tenants in Matthew 21:33-45 also seems to allude to a transition in the kingdom. At the end of the parable the Kingdom of God was taken from his listeners. It is then given to a people who would produce its fruit (Matt. 21:43). It could be that Jesus was simply referring to the kingdom being taken from the religious leaders. But I believe it more likely that it was being taken from the Jews who had failed to produce the fruit of the kingdom. And given to all believers, regardless their ethnicity.

1 Peter is written to a largely Gentile audience. And he identifies those he is writing to as “a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession” (1 Pet. 2:9-10). While not directly identifying the kingdom, he does seem to refer to it here. And if so, he is identifying a kingdom that is made up of people crossing ethnic lines.

A Future Kingdom

In general Jesus seems to be announcing a kingdom that is coming, but not yet realized. The expression ‘the kingdom is near’, used by both John the Baptist and Jesus points to a future kingdom. It is close, but not yet. It is something we are looking forward to, our hope of salvation.

In Matthew 25:31-46 Jesus told the parable of the sheep and goats. To the sheep he said “Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world.” This pronouncement, made at the last judgement, ushers believers into the kingdom. Of interest in this passage is that in Matt. 25:46 he said that these same sheep will go away into eternal life. So in some ways eternal life and the Kingdom of God are synonymous.

Inheriting the kingdom is a common expression, used in the preceding passage as well as several times in Paul’s writings and once in James. Often when Paul uses the expression it is to describe who will not enter it. For instance, people living in a certain way will not inherit the kingdom (1 Cor. 6:9-10, Gal. 5:21, and Eph. 5:5). And in 1 Corinthians 15:50 he expressed that flesh and blood would not inherit the kingdom. It is only for those who share in Christ’s resurrection.

And, in 2 Peter 1:11, we find Peter, writing to suffering believers, telling them that they “will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord.” This is a welcome that comes after our physical death. Again, something we look forward to.

A Present Reality

While most of the references to the kingdom seem to point to the future, there are some that indicate that the kingdom is a present reality. In Matthew 16:28 Jesus told his disciples that “some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.” I do not know how to understand this other than that the kingdom was ushered in during the lifetime of at least some of his disciples. The most likely time for this was at Pentecost with the coming of the Holy Spirit. This transformed the disciples and ushered in the church age.

Another passage that points to the present day reality of the kingdom is Luke 17:21. In this passage Jesus says that people will not be pointing out the location of the kingdom. This will not be needed “because the kingdom of God is in [our] midst.” The kingdom has a very real existence now in the lives of believers. We currently have citizenship in the kingdom. It is not something that we have to wait for.

This points to something called “already, but not yet”. The kingdom of God has present reality, and as believers we are already in the kingdom. But it is also awaiting a future realization. A realization that seems to be awaiting the return of Christ and our resurrection. At that time the kingdom of God will reach its anticipated fulfillment.

Gaining Entry Into the Kingdom

Membership in an earthy kingdom generally occurs because you were born in the territory controlled by the kingdom. Or it may be because you met some other requirement for joining. In the US that would be passing a citizenship exam and swearing in ceremony. In other places it may be as simple as moving into the territory. But what about the kingdom of heaven? What are the requirements for becoming a citizen in this kingdom?

In Matthew 6:33 Jesus told us to seek for the kingdom. On our own we will never find it. But the Father will reward those who do seek, and Jesus promises that they will find what they seek (Matt. 7:7). But it requires more than just seeking. The rich man who came to Jesus looking for eternal life was seeking. But he went away sorrowful (Mark 10:17-22).

Jesus told us that in order to enter the kingdom our righteousness must surpass that of the Pharisees (Matt. 5:20). And that we must do the will of the Father (Matt. 7:21). It would be possible to see passages like this teaching a works based approach to entry into the kingdom. Yet it is clear in the New Testament that is not the case. It is by faith, not works, that we are saved (Eph. 2:8-9) and become a part of the kingdom.

In John 3:3 Jesus told Nicodemus that he must be born again in order to see the kingdom. And in Matthew 18:3 and Mark 10:15 Jesus said that we must become like little children in order to enter the kingdom. Little children who cannot earn their parents love, and who implicitly trust the parents to take care of them. This is reflecting a dependence on God, a child-like faith.

The Nature of the Kingdom of God

The Kingdom Is A Spiritual One

It was common for the Jews in Jesus’ day to look for a coming Messiah that would establish an earthly kingdom. But that is not the kind of kingdom that Jesus was proclaiming. In John 18:36 Jesus said, “My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jewish leaders. But now my kingdom is from another place.” He was not looking to establish an earthly kingdom. Instead, his kingdom was from another place; it was spiritual, not earthly.

Paul, in 1 Corinthians 15:50 told the church “that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.” The kingdom belongs to those with resurrection bodies. Hebrews 12:28, announcing “a kingdom that cannot be shaken“, and 2 Peter 1:11, referring to the “eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ“, also shed some light on the kingdom. That it is eternal and unshakable also indicate that it is not of this world.

Christ Rules Over the Kingdom

As mentioned above, the Jews were looking forward to a Messiah who would sit on David’s throne, ruling the nations. A rule that would be unending. While their understanding of this kingdom was one like David’s original kingdom, the New Testament paints a different picture.

In Gabriel’s announcement to Mary in Luke 1:32-33, he said that Jesus would rule on David’s throne forever. Jesus was the promised Messiah. The Messiah who would sit on David’s throne. But it was not an earthly throne. At least not one in this present age. Some look forward to Jesus return as the time that he would take up his rule. But he is already ruling over his kingdom.

In John 18:36 Jesus told Pilate that his “kingdom is not of this world.” But Jesus does have a kingdom, where he sits enthroned as king; the Kingdom of Heaven. In 1 Corinthians 15:24 Paul, looked ahead to the end “when [Jesus] hands over the kingdom to God the Father.” Jesus is ruling now. But at the end he delivers the kingdom to the Father so that God may be all in all (1 Cor. 15:28).

Finally, in 2 Peter 1:11 he looks forward to our welcome into “the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.” The kingdom belongs to our Lord and Savior, Jesus. Many, if not most, of the Old Testament prophecies that look forward to the re-establishment of a kingdom for Israel are likely actually looking forward to the kingdom that Christ has established and that exists now. A kingdom, not of ethnic Jews, but of all believers in the Lord Jesus.

The Kingdom is Unending

The Kingdom of God is unlike any kingdom this world has ever known. Not only is it a spiritual kingdom, it is also an eternal kingdom. It will never end, but will endure throughout the ages. Peter, in 2 Peter 1:11, told us that we can look forward to a “rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.” The kingdom we are looking forward to is eternal.

In Luke 1:32-33 Gabriel told Mary that the child she will carry will be the Son of the Most High and that he would reign over David’s throne forever. The kingdom that Christ rules over is unending; enduring throughout the remainder of eternity. And, in Hebrews 12:28, we are told that “we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken.” The kingdom will never fail. Nothing that might ever occur can shake it, or cause it to fall. It is an eternal kingdom.

The Kingdom and Parables

The subject of the vast majority of Jesus’ parables was the Kingdom of Heaven. And many, although not all, of these parables start off with “The Kingdom of Heaven is like . . . “. Each of these parable has something to say to us about the kingdom.

The parable of the soils (Matt. 13:1-23) tells us how people receive the news of the kingdom. The parable of the weeds (Matt. 13:24-30; 36-42) expresses that the children of the kingdom will dwell with the children of the devil until the end. Parables of the mustard seed and yeast (Matt. 13:31-33) talk about the growth of the kingdom. The hidden treasure and the pearl (Matt. 13:44-46) reflect on the value of the kingdom.

A parable of 10 virgins (Matt. 25:1-13) expresses the need to always be ready. The parable of the talents (Matt. 25:14-30) emphasizes the importance of how we live and the future consequences of that life. And the parable of the sheep and goats (Matt. 25:31-46) also reflects on the importance of how we live and treat others.

These are just a few of the many parables that Jesus taught. Each of them had some little nugget of information about the kingdom. And each of them is well worth studying in order to gain insight into this kingdom that already is, but has not yet reached fulfillment.

What is the Kingdom of God?

In a broad sense, the Kingdom of God is the rule of God over all of his creation. He is the sovereign Lord and works out all things according to his plan and purpose (Eph. 1:11). There is nothing in all of creation that operates independently of him. Not only did he create all that is, but he also sustains it (Col. 1:17).

In a narrower sense it is the rule of God, or Christ, in the hearts of his people; the redeemed. And it is in this sense that most of the New Testament seems to focus on. The gospel is the good news of the kingdom. And all who submit to the rule of God in their heart are saved and a part of his kingdom.

The kingdom has present reality now. And all who belong to Christ are a part of that kingdom. But there is another sense in which we look forward to the kingdom. We see through a glass darkly now, but then we will see and experience it much more clearly and fuller. That coming actualization of the kingdom is the home we have as believers.

There are also many who look for an earthly kingdom ruled by Christ before the end of this age; the millenium kingdom spoken of in Revelation 20:1-6. But rather than discuss that now I will put it off until a future post.

The views expressed here are solely mine and do not necessarily reflect those of any other person, group, or organization. While I believe they reflect the teachings of the Bible, I am a fallible human and subject to misunderstanding. Please feel free to leave any comments or questions about this post in the comments section below. I am always interested in your feedback.

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Anthony Goh
Anthony Goh
1 year ago

The preparation is in the form of getting more bread, to strengthen our trust in God, which Abraham, Caleb, Ananias and Sapphira needed. If our trust, faith is not strong enough, we must buy more oil, milk and honey without money, to build up our faith so that we can pass the test. This bread was only for the Children, but since the plan was always that these Children would be identified by faith, rather than circumcision or possessing Torah, Jesus gave bread to the Syro-phoenician woman too. This is why Jesus asked us to ask for bread, good news, everyday, which we are entitled to, when we claim we do trust, at baptism. In the form of signs, revelations of God’s great works of rescuing, that the believers in Acts 19, immediately received, when they were properly baptised.

Hebrews 4:6Since, then, it remains for some to enter His rest, and since those who formerly heard the good news did not enter because of their disobedience, 7God again designated a certain day as “Today,” when a long time later He spoke through David as was just stated: “Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts.”
…..

Hebrews 11:17By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was offering up his only begotten son;
……..

Psalms 106:
10He saved them from the hand of the foe;

from the hand of the enemy he redeemed them.

11The waters covered their adversaries;

not one of them survived.

12Then they believed his promises

and sang his praise.

13But they soon forgot what he had done

and did not wait for his plan to unfold.

14In the desert they gave in to their craving;

in the wilderness they put God to the test.

Psalm 78:11
They forgot what He had done, the wonders He had shown them.

Psalm 106:21
They forgot God their Savior, who did great things in Egypt,

Psalm 107:11
because they rebelled against the words of God and despised the counsel of the Most High.

1 Cor 10:1I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our forefathers were all under the cloud, and that they all passed through the sea. 2They were all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea. 3They all ate the same spiritual food 4and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ. 5Nevertheless, God was not pleased with most of them, for they were struck down in the wilderness.
…..

Heb 4:2
For indeed we have had good news preached to us, just as they also; but the word they heard did not profit them, because it was not united by faith in those who heard.

……
Numbers 14:20“I have pardoned them as you requested,” the LORD replied. 21“Yet as surely as I live and as surely as the whole earth is filled with the glory of the LORD, 22not one of the men who have seen My glory and the signs I performed in Egypt and in the wilderness—yet have tested Me and disobeyed Me these ten times— 23not one will ever see the land that I swore to give their fathers. None of those who have treated Me with contempt will see it.

24But because My servant Caleb has a different spirit (is born again, has repented, meta-noia-ed, changed his mindset, from half trusting to fully trusting, like Abraham) and has followed Me wholeheartedly, I will bring him into the land he has entered, and his descendants will inherit it.

…….
John 3:1Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a leader of the Jews. 2He came to Jesus at night and said, “Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the signs You are doing if God were not with him.”

3Jesus replied, “Truly, truly, I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again (remembers the revelations he received of God’s ability to save, received when he claimed to trust God at baptism, allows it to build up his trust in God, and repents, meta-noia-s, has a different spirit, changes his mindset, from not fully trusting God to fully trusting God).

Anthony Goh
Anthony Goh
1 year ago

Ed Jarrett
That was an excellent article describing the Kingdom of God. None of it is wrong. However it lacked one thing.

God promised Abraham that his descendants would become blessings to the world. He also promised those descendants that He could bring those who trusted Him into a Promised Land.

You did not understand that being in the Promised Land is the Way that the People of God would become blessings to the world.

When Adam was in the Garden, he was in union with God. The Garden is a state in which Adam was sinless, just as minors are not culpable in a court of law, because the part of the brain that makes judgment calls is not developed: they can’t tell the difference between right and wrong, what judges call having mental competency. In this state, it covered Adam’s disobedience, even his disloyal thoughts about God. He needed to be in this state, because only the pure can see God, be in His presence. In order to manifest God being with the sinless person, so that all of God’s creation could be subdued, broken, like a mustang is broken, and be made useful to its Owner. That was the job God gave Adam, to express righteousness, the fruit that God created humanity to produce, because God loves the expression, manifestation, of righteousness, in this case by gathering Creation to be in submission to God.

This is how the People of God, initially represented by Israel, consisting of Jews, and finally, represented by the Body of Christ, consisting of all types of races, both Jews and non-Jews, would function, as the real Kingdom of God, being blessings to the world, as something that needed to be entered, through a test.

Jesus warned that the test would come, a tower that needed to be built, an approaching army that needed to be overcome, in order to be IN Christ. The warning was that when it arrived it would require the believer to have enough resources. An option existed, not to avoid taking the test, but to ask for terms of peace, a delay in the deadline, so that the believer could get more resources, buy oil for their lamps, milk and honey without money, wedding garments, so that he would not be found lacking.

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