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Arminianism: The Persistence of Salvation

Can a truly born-again believer lose their salvation? Or will they persist in their faith? Arminians are in agreement concerning the total depravity of humanity and our inability to make spiritual choices on our own. We are in agreement that Christ’s atoning work on the cross was for everyone in the world. We agree that God’s grace is resistible, and that we can refuse his offer of salvation. And we agree that God’s election of believers is conditional upon us responding to his prevenient grace in faith. But Arminians are divided concerning the persistence of salvation; can salvation be lost, or will true believers always persist in their faith?

Estimated reading time: 16 minutes

Can We Lose Our Salvation?

This question about salvation persistence, or eternal security, is emotionally charged. It is particularly so for those with family members who have made a public profession of faith and later turned their backs on it. Believing that your loved ones will be with you in heaven rather than suffering destruction is comforting. And it can offer security to the lukewarm believer. The one who believes that even though they are not currently walking with Christ, they have made a commitment to him in the past and so are still saved. But no matter how appealing the idea may be, if it contradicts what the Bible teaches, it is a false hope.

What does the Bible teach about the persistence of salvation? Unfortunately, nowhere does it explicitly say that salvation either can or cannot be lost. If it did, there would be no argument about it. Instead, we must examine the Scriptures carefully to see what they say about it.

It is worth pointing out that my understanding of this issue will diverge from that of most who hold to Arminian soteriology. But since Arminians have from the beginning disagreed among themselves on this point, that should not be too surprising. This article will look at the arguments on both sides of this debate. But, in the end, it will be a reflection of my own understanding that is emphasized.

The Argument For Persistence of Salvation

A number of passages are used to support the belief that salvation cannot be lost. Jude 1:24, “Now to him who is able to keep you from stumbling and to present you blameless before the presence of his glory with great joy“, is one of these. This verse affirms that God can keep me from falling and is able to present me blameless before the Father. Those holding to persistence in salvation see this verse as teaching that God does what is needed to keep us secure. It is not by our own efforts.

The Scriptural Support

John 10:28-29 says that Jesus gives us “eternal life, and they [believers] will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.” Who, or what, could possibly snatch us from the hands of both the Son and the Father? God is greater than all and able to protect us from any who would seek our destruction.

In Ephesians 4:30, Paul tells us not to “grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.” Sealing was a way to ensure security and prevent tampering. If we are sealed until the day of redemption, then there is no chance of apostasy; our eternal security is secure.

One of the best-known passages is John 3:16. Here, Jesus says, “God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.” God has given eternal life to all who believe in Jesus. This life is eternal; how can something that is eternal be taken away?

And what may be the most used passage to support eternal security is Romans 8:38-39. “For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Nothing in all of creation can separate us from God’s love.

God Will Keep Us Secure

Together these passages express security in our relationship with God. God is strong enough that no one can separate us from him. We were foreknown by God, redeemed by Christ and sealed by the Spirit, adopted into the family of God. There is no possibility of falling from God’s grace. And if someone appears to have done so, it is more likely that they had never been saved in the first place.

One other argument for eternal security comes from Calvinism. Here it is taught that God has unconditionally chosen us and irresistibly called us to himself. It would follow then that there is no possibility of falling. It was not really my choice to come to Christ. And it would not be my choice to remove myself from his grace. But of course, this logic does not work from an Arminian perspective since we do not accept either unconditional election or irresistible grace.

The Argument Against Persistence of Salvation

The Bible is filled with passages that express our need to endure to the end, not to turn away, and to remain faithful. Take a look at the passages in the list below, all of which express a warning against turning away.

  • And you will be hated by all for my name’s sake. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. (Matthew 10:22, Mark 13:13)
  • But whoever denies Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 10:33)
  • And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. (Matthew 24:12-13)
  • Those on the rocky soil are those who, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no firm root; they believe for a while, and in time of temptation fall away. (Luke 8:13)
  • Jesus replied, “No one who puts a hand to the plow and looks back is fit for service in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 9:62)
  • Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away (John 15:2)
  • If anyone does not abide in Me, he is thrown away as a branch and dries up; and they gather them, and cast them into the fire and they are burned. (John 15:6)
  • That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear. For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness to you, provided you continue in his kindness. Otherwise you too will be cut off. (Romans 11:20-22)
  • By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise, you have believed in vain. (1 Corinthians 15:2)
  • I am amazed that you are so quickly deserting Him who called you by the grace of Christ, for a different gospel (Galatians 1:6)
  • Keeping faith and a good conscience, which some have rejected and suffered shipwreck in regard to their faith. Among these are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have handed over to Satan, so that they will be taught not to blaspheme. (1 Timothy 1:19-20)
  • But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons (1 Timothy 4:1)
  • If we endure, we will also reign with him; if we deny him, he also will deny us (2 Timothy 2:12)
  • Take care, brethren, that there not be in any one of you an evil, unbelieving heart that falls away from the living God. (Hebrews 3:12)
  • We have come to share in Christ, if indeed we hold our original conviction firmly to the very end. (Hebrews 3:14)
  • For it is impossible, in the case of those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, and have shared in the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the age to come, and then have fallen away, to restore them again to repentance, since they are crucifying once again the Son of God to their own harm and holding him up to contempt. (Hebrews 6:4-6)
  • We want each of you to show this same diligence to the very end, so that what you hope for may be fully realized. (Hebrews 6:11)
  • But we do not belong to those who shrink back and are destroyed, but to those who have faith and are saved. (Hebrews 10:39)
  • For if, after they have escaped the defilements of the world by the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled in them and are overcome, the last state has become worse for them than the first. For it would be better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than having known it, to turn away from the holy commandment handed on to them. It has happened to them according to the true proverb, “A dog returns to it’s own vomit,” and, “A sow, after washing, returns to wallowing in the mire.” (2 Peter 2:20-22)

Taking Seriously the Warnings About Falling Away

Over and over, we are warned about falling away, encouraged to endure to the end. Why would that be if there were no possibility of falling? All of these passages are directed at believers, at people who were following Christ and believed to be saved. Those who claim that salvation cannot be lost acknowledge that these are indeed warnings. But that the warnings are effective and true believers will heed them and thus not be lost. But that would seem to leave open the possibility that if the warnings had not been given, believers could have fallen and once again become lost. Nor does it explain 1 Timothy 1:19-20 where Hymenaeus and Alexander have rejected faith and been shipwrecked; the warnings seemed ineffective in at least their case.

The Necessity of Persisting Faith

Now if it were true that election was unconditional and grace was irresistible, then a believer should be unable to remove himself from the grace of God. But Arminianism does not accept either of those doctrines, holding instead to a conditional election and resistible grace. There is a synergism involved in coming into a relationship with God. Our human part is limited to submission to God’s gracious offer of salvation. But our faith is a requirement for salvation.

But is not persisting faith a requirement for persisting in salvation? Hebrews 3:14 says, “We have come to share in Christ, if indeed we hold our original conviction firmly to the very end.” We will only share in Christ if we persevere to the end. It would appear that synergism is involved. Not just in the initial act of salvation, but also throughout our walk with Christ. God will not allow anyone or anything to take us from him. But those passages say nothing about me removing myself from his care. I am protected so long as I persist in faith. If I do not, then I am worse off than I was at the beginning (2 Pet 2:20-22).

Three Phases of Salvation

All too often, when we talk about salvation, we refer to something in our past; we have been saved. While I do not remember the specific day, I very much remember the occasion of my salvation, which I look back on periodically. But salvation is more than that. The Scripture also talks about salvation in the present and future tense; I am being saved and will be saved.


Philippians 2:12-13 gives the clearest reference to a present tense for salvation as Paul tells the believers at Philippi, “Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, so now, not only as in my presence but much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God who works in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure.” This verse expresses the synergy involved in our ongoing salvation; God is working in us to accomplish his will, but we are also instructed to ‘work out’ our salvation. We can do nothing apart from the working of God, but we are called to cooperate with him.

The Work of the Holy Spirit

This phase of salvation is most commonly called sanctification or growing in Christ-likeness. Sanctification is primarily the work of the Holy Spirit in our lives, molding and shaping us into people who will be useful in God’s service. But as the previous passage expressed, the Holy Spirit works with us, not against us. My free will is not removed when I come to Christ; I need to continue to choose surrender rather than resistance. There are a number of passages that express the consequences of starting along the journey with Christ, but not completing it.

Luke 9:62 is as clear on this as any when “Jesus replied, ‘No one who puts a hand to the plow and looks back is fit for service in the kingdom of God.'” If we start putting our hands on the plow, but somewhere along the line turn away from the task at hand, then Jesus tells us we are not fit for his service. Only if we continue, remaining in Christ (John 15:1-6) are we going to be fruitful; the result of unfruitfulness is to be broken off of the vine and cast into the fire.


The third phase of salvation is what happens at the end of this life, often termed glorification. 1 Peter 1:5 expresses this the best for me when Peter, talking about believers, says, “who by God’s power are being guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.” We are waiting for a salvation that is waiting to be revealed. It is reminiscent of the unveiling of a work of art; we know it is there, but what it looks like is somewhat of a mystery.

So it is with our salvation; we know it is awaiting us, but what it will actually entail is beyond our knowledge. Instead, we eagerly look forward to it. Later in this chapter, Peter says, in 1 Peter 1:9, that we are “obtaining the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls.” The salvation of our souls is yet in the future and is something we look forward to.

Paul expresses a similar thought in Romans 13:11, telling us “that the hour has come for you to wake from sleep. For salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed.” Our salvation is getting closer all the time. While we have been and are being saved, we also look forward to being saved. The proverb “it ain’t over till the fat lady sings” is somewhat appropriate here. Salvation is not complete so long as we are living in this world.

Enduring To the End

When you look at the passages under the section “Arguments Against Persistence of Salvation“, you will find quite a few that express the need to endure to the end, holding firmly, or otherwise expressing the importance of not deserting your faith. You might almost say that one could not lose his salvation because, in a very real way, we do not have it as long as we live in the flesh. We must have persevering faith in order to come to the end and ultimately experience salvation. More important than how you start the Christian life is how you finish it.

Assurance of Salvation

Arminius seemed to be vague on the subject of persistence in salvation. But it appears he accepted the possibility that a person could walk away from the faith and be lost. The early Remonstrants expressed that it was a subject that needed more study and, at least initially, declined to take a position. Charles Wesley, the most prominent Arminian after Arminius himself, believed that salvation could be lost. Generally, those who hold to classical Arminianism accept that it is possible for a person to walk away from their faith. They would generally be called 5-point Arminians. Those who argue that salvation cannot be lost are considered 4-point Arminians.

So if it is possible for one to lose their salvation, to fall from grace, is it possible to have an assurance of your salvation? The answer to that depends to a large extent on what would cause you to lose your salvation.

An Example

I met a godly young couple many years ago, and the young man told me something that stunned me at the time and is something I have never forgotten. He said that if he were to look at a woman with lust in his heart, step out into the road, get hit by a truck, and die, he would go to hell. His salvation was dependent on seeking forgiveness for each sin as he committed it.

As much as I admired and respected this young couple, I do not find that taught in the Scripture anywhere, apart from a misunderstanding of 1 John 5:18, “We know that everyone who has been born of God does not keep on sinning,” and similar passages in that letter.

Is There An Unforgivable Sin?

If I don’t lose my salvation with every sin, are there any specific sins that can remove me from God’s grace? 1 John 5:16 says, “There is sin that leads to death; I do not say that one should pray for that.” What is this sin that leads to death, sin that we should not even bother to pray for? John seems to define two categories of sin, some that are forgivable and some that are not.

But what is the unforgivable sin? Some, like the Roman Catholic church, specify some specific sins as being mortal, meaning unforgivable, while others are venial or forgivable. Others see this unforgivable sin as the blasphemy of the Holy Spirit mentioned by Jesus in Matthew 12:32. And others see this unforgivable sin as a rejection of the gospel.

Turning Your Back on the Gospel

Rejection of the gospel seems to be what Paul is dealing with in Galatians 5:4 when he says, “You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace.” These are people who must have been connected with Christ at one point; else, how could they be severed from him? What had they done to be severed from him? They had exchanged the gospel, and God’s grace, for justification by law, a different gospel. As a result, they had fallen from grace.

And this would seem to be the key to the issue of losing one’s salvation. Have you abandoned your faith and the grace of God, either for a different gospel or just to return to the world? If so, then you have not endured to the end, and are not saved.

I can have an assurance of my salvation. As long as I am faithful and serving God, as long as faith persists, I am saved. If I fall short of perfection, my salvation is not impacted. If I am not growing fast enough, it does not impact my salvation. But if I abandon my faith in Jesus, turning away from the gospel proclaimed in the Bible, I am not saved, and never was in the first place. It is because of a choice on my part to take my hand from the plow and turn away (Luke 9:62).


The persistence of salvation is not a critical doctrine for Arminians. Many Arminians do believe in the doctrine of eternal security. While many others, who might otherwise consider themselves Arminian choose not to identify as Arminian because of a mistaken belief that the possibility of losing salvation is a core doctrine of Arminianism. Many even go so far as to identify as Calvinists, and that is indeed unfortunate since they are really Arminian.

The views expressed in this post are mine and are not held by all Arminians. Regardless of your stand on eternal security, you are an Arminian if you accept the doctrines of total depravity, unlimited atonement, conditional election, and resistible grace.


The views expressed here are solely mine and do not necessarily reflect those of any other person, group, or organization. While I believe they reflect the teachings of the Bible, I am a fallible human and subject to misunderstanding. Please feel free to leave any comments or questions about this post in the comments section below. I am always interested in your feedback.

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16 thoughts on “Arminianism: The Persistence of Salvation”

  1. “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.” This does not say as long as Abraham believes God, it will be counted as righteousness. “believed” is past tense, a one and done action, and the resulting action by God was that He declared Abraham righteous.
    In Romans 4:24 Paul writes, “it will be counted to us who believe in him who raised from the dead Jesus our Lord”. Just as God counted it as righteousness to Abraham (who is the father of us all), the words I believe that are very important here are “IT WILL BE” counted to us who believe in Jesus. It doesn’t say, ‘it MAY be counted to us if we faithfully walk with God all our lives’. If it was up to us to be good enough to be able to inherit eternal life…that flies in the face of what JESus did for us at the cross. He fulfilled the law perfectly so that we would not have to. If we teach that it is up to our actions or inactions, then we nullify grace (unmerited favor), and this becomes a “different gospel” that Paul writes about in Galatians, and Paul uses the words “let him be acursed”. I have heard from others who have been in your camp that they would stay awake at night trying their hardest to think of all the sins that they did that previous day, but they would still have a lot of fear that they perhaps missed one, the one that God would count against them that night if they were to die and face judgement. This gospel that you are preaching robs Jesus of his full accomplishment, it robs people of joy of salvation. The gospel is through faith alone(Abraham), in Christ alone. To tell someone that they can somehow forfeit their salvation by some sin that they commit is to make God a liar when he says that our (those of us that believe) names are written in the Book of Life. Philippians 4:3 Paul speaks about his current fellow works (still alive) that their names “ARE” in the book of life: “and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life”. We have been sealed.. Ephesians 1:13 “In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit,”. “were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit”… if we can lose our salvation, then God should have not said “sealed”. Romans 3:28 “For we hold that one is justified by faith apart from works of the law”… to tell a believer that they can forfeit their salvation means that salvation is all up them and how they live their lives according to God’s law… how you live your life would be considered a “work” and Paul says that we are justified with God by faith APART from works of the law.
    Romans 5:10-11 “10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life. 11 More than that, we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.” “…Jesus Christ, through whom we HAVE NOW received reconciliation”. That seems very clear to me that we can rejoice in God that we are reconciled to him, that his wrath was poured out on Jesus on the Cross for all my sins, I am completely white in the eyes of God thanks to Jesus’ blood and resurrection.
    Romans 5:20-21 “Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” grace reigns through righteousness in my sinful body! Praise God!
    Romans 6:14 “For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace.” I am not under the law ANYMORE (it does not depend on my own righteousness in this life…Jesus IS my righteousness. I am under grace now, thanks to Jesus!!)
    If it is up to me to walk without sin to be able to have eternal life with God, then the gift of salvation wouldn’t be free anymore, “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

    • It is clear that if you think those who lie awake at night fearing some sin are in my camp, that you do not know that I believe on the subject. There is nothing I need to do apart from faith. My salvation is from Christ alone, by grace alone, through faith alone. Nothing I can do will add to or take away from the finished work of Christ. And so I am not concerned at all over committing some sin that might cost me my salvation.

      My guess is that you are not a fan of Hebrews. A major theme of Hebrews is the need to remain faithful. It is really hard to miss the concern the author has for those he writes to, encouraging them over and over to remain faithful.

      • I’m sorry Ed for not understanding your position. Thank you for your interaction. I will try to read it more closely to understand what you’re saying. I by no means am saying that we intentionally go on sinning so that grace may increase more like what Paul said in Galatians. Jesus said that if we loved Him, we would follow his commands which are not burdensome, but helpful for us to have a joyful and peaceful life. Take care.

        • No worries. I would equate “Faithfully following” with loving him and obeying his commands. Commands to love God with all we are and others as we do ourselves. Being saved is not a matter is signing a fire insurance policy and then doing what you want believing your future is secure.

  2. I would agree to be in salvation you need to remain in your faith. This is sort of know for me, as I always embraced the “Once save always saved side”. . It does make sense that if we freely choose him, we can freely reject Him. Once I debated a Calvinist and he told me that it is inconsistent to believe in eternal security if we believe in freely accepting or rejecting Jesus. After checking many bible verse about eternal security, they are mostly a promise for those who believe.

    Concerning 1 John 2:19 (They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us.), this was specific for the Antichrist from the previous verse. Those were Gnostic who infiltrated the church, not to those who embraced the faith and rejected it later.

    I though that if we believe we can lose our salivation, we would not have assurance, but I found it gives me more assurance than believing that I could have a fake faith (deceiving myself) and not knowing it. I believe and will be saved if I remind trusting in Jesus my King.

    • From the Calvinist perspective, if it was God who chose who would be saved, and you ultimately had no say in the matter, how could you possibly fall? Their doctrine of persistence logically follows from their version of the doctrine of election.

      But the Scripture does appear clear, at least to me, concerning the necessity of remaining faithful until the end.

      • If someone is truly saved, that person is a bond servant for Jesus Christ. You are a new creation, indwelt by the Holy Spirit. No one whom the father gives to Jesus will be lost. He will cause us to remain in Him. He is faithful, even when we are faithless. People say that because we have free will we can walk away. They don’t understand that our free will now is bound in Christ. We couldn’t save ourselves. He had to do all the work. We simply needed to accept the free gift of Grace. Once we do, we are His forever. It is not humble to say that because we have free will we can walk away. Can we fall away for a time? Yes, but if you are His, He will always lead you back. Would you agree that the verses that speak about remaining faithful to the end are addressed to Jews? (either during the Tribulation period, or in the book of Hebrews). Let’s not think we are so great that He would allow us to make the choice to ultimately walk away. We are in the Church Age, the age of Grace. An earthly gift we could return, but this is a heavenly gift. Free to those who receive it, sealed with the promise of redemption.

        • It should be clear if you read much of what I write that I do not believe either Calvinist soteriology or dispensationalism is what the Scripture teaches. So the assumptions we start with are different.

          I do not believe a person can lose their salvation. Mostly because our salvation is not complete until we have been delivered from this world. My salvation is not something God forced on me. Nor is it something based on a decision I made in the past. It is based on remaining faithful to my Lord until the end of this life.

          And no, I do not agree that the passages dealing with falling away are addressed to Jews. All Acripture is inspired by God and useful for my life in Christ. Not just the parts I agree with.

  3. Salvation is about going home, but if you don’t know where you live, someone will have to come and get you. When you are there and know this is my home, well you don’t want to leave. There is no where else to go. Man was created in the light, then he was given a choice, he did what he was told not to do, he now lives in the dark. Jesus is the light when we are convicted of sin, which is dark and given the choice of living in the light ( going home ) and if we accept there is never any more choices to make. We are home, we are free. Now you can call me a Armenian, or a Calvinists, I don’t mind, I know who came and got me, I’m home.

  4. Hi my name is Maryanna
    I know I was saved when I was 10 years old. But I’m afraid that I fell from the faith and lost my salvation.
    I am afraid of Hebrews 10:26 to 29 and Hebrew six.
    Any ideas on this
    I am really scared that I am going to hell.

    • I believe that your concern over your salvation is a good indication that you are not beyond redemption. If you will repent of your sin, and faithfully follow Jesus as your Lord, I do believe that you will be saved.

    • 1 John 1:9 states that “if we confess our sin, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sin and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.”

      You said that you distinctly remember when you were saved. If that is the case, you know that you were forgiven in that moment. While it is possible to ‘fall out of fellowship’ with God, He is unchangeable and promises to always forgive us when we ask him to do so…regardless of the number of times we ask.

      My on-going fear, while I was growing up, was that I had somehow committed the “unpardonable sin”. And, I didn’t understand what that sin could possibly be because of the verse in 1 John 1:9 where God promises to forgive our sin and ALL our unrighteousness.

      One day, I realized that the only way we can have an ‘unpardonable sin’ is that we refuse to ask for forgiveness. It’s the person who hardens their heart against God that has committed the ‘unpardonable sin’….and, it’s unforgiveable merely because he or she refuses to ask.

      • Salvation is not simply a matter of asking forgiveness and then trusting that will take care of your eternity. We are called to walk faithfully with Christ. And those who do will be saved.

        • Your statement: “We are called to walk faithfully with Christ. And those who do will be saved.” When you stated that people who continue to “walk” with Christ WILL be saved, it goes against Ephesians 2 where it says that “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, 9 not a result of works, so that no one may boast. 10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.” If it was up to me and my good works (i.e. walking faithfully with Christ), then I could boast, “Yes, I walked faithfully until the end and Christ will accept me into heaven”…but Paul in Ephesians was against this whole idea! Read Romans 4: we are justified by believing…we are heirs with Abraham who was the 1st to believe and God credited it to him as righteousness…ONLY because of his belief.

          • The difference between us is that you seem to think believing was something you do/did at some point in the past. I hold that believing is an ongoing process. And that believing is entrusting your life to him, walking faithfully before him. And that is what Abraham did.

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